Societal cost-benefit analysis of open data (2016 – 2017)
This research, commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Affairs, aimed to investigate the societal costs and benefits of open data. In the National Open Data Agenda (NODA) of the Netherlands, the ambition was formulated to make available government data as open data as much as possible. Priority should be given to so-called high value datasets, i.e. data that should be opened as soon as possible because of their high social-economic value and/or their contribution to a transparant and accountable government. The research explored the balance and trade-offs between the costs of making government data available as open data and the societal benefits of opening government data. The study consisted of two main parts: 1) a literature study of articles, reports and documents regarding costs and benefits of open data and 2) a societal cost/benefit analysis of five government data sets. The final report presenting the main results and findings of the study is available in Dutch.
Sustainable business models for open data (2015-2016)
Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realising ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. However, between proposing an open data policy and successful implementation are some practicable obstacles, especially for government agencies required to generate sufficient revenue to cover their operating costs, so-called self-funding agencies. With lost revenue due to open data, there is a real risk that the update frequency and the quality of data may suffer or that the open data policy may even have to be reversed. In this project, the financial effects of open data policies for self-funding agencies on their business model were investigated. The project led to several hands-on proposals for self-funding agencies having to implement an open data policy whilst ensuring their long-term sustainability. A report presenting the main results and findings of the study is available in Dutch.
In this research project, an open data assessment framework was developed to assess open data supply, open data governance and open data user characteristics. This holistic open data framework allows to asses the maturity of the open data ecosystem and is a useful tool to indicate which aspects of the open data ecosystem are successful and which aspects require attention. An assessment was made of the Dutch open data ecosystem. The research was conducted as part of the Dutch ICT Breakthrough Project Open Geodata, initiated and coordinated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs in cooperation with the Ministry of Infrastructure & the Environment, the Ministry of the Interior & Kingdom Relations, GeoBusinessNetherlands, and several researchers. The article ‘How to assess the success of the open data ecosystem‘ by Frederika Welle Donker and Bastiaan van Loenen presents and discusses the results of the 2014 assessment. Two reports in Dutch are available presenting the results of both the 2014 assessment and the 2016 assessment.
ELF – European Location Framework (2013-2016)
The goal of this project was to deliver the European Location Framework (ELF) required to provide up-to-date, authoritative, interoperable, cross-border, reference geo-information for use by the European public and private sectors. The European Location Framework is a technical infrastructure which delivers authoritative, interoperable, cross-border geospatial reference data for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The Framework builds a geospatial reference data infrastructure and provides interoperable reference data and services from national information assets enabling users to build their work on it. Once developed and adopted they will be the basis for the official framework providing location information needed to geographically reference objects from other domains allowing panEuropean interoperability. The objective was to foster the wider use of geo-information and enable the creation of innovative value-added services. The project’s proactive stimulation of content markets involved the creation of sample applications using thematic communities to make user-led developments by SMEs.
In her PhD research, KCOD researcher Frederika Welle Donker investigated which barriers re-users of public sector information still face after the introduction of open data, and what can be done to alleviate these barriers to lift the maturity of open data to a higher level. With more public sector information becoming available as open data and with rapid technological developments, a trickle of web services and apps based on public sector information can be witnessed. However, the predicted free flow of information products and services based on public sector information has not eventuated yet. The main challenge for open data will be how to measure the actual impact of open government data. To do so, an open data assessment framework is required that evaluates open government data not only from a data supplier’s perspective, but also from a (re-)user’s perspective. The research of Welle Donker aimed to bridge the gap between current government data re-use practices and its full potential. In her PhD dissertation, user barriers are identified, theoretical concepts are developed and designed, and practical bridges are provided to enable re-use to the max. An open data assessment model to determine the effects of open data and assess the maturity of open data initiatives is developed and applied.
Geoportals play an important role in the accessibility of geographical data. However, the maturity of geoportals varies significantly across the globe. This Global Geoportal Map (GGPM) provides a worldwide overview of the maturity of national portals. The project, which was assigned by the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association (GSDI), gives insight in the status of national portals to geospatial data. The GGPM contains more than hundred geoportals in the world. Each portal is described and assessed using multiple indicators, such as the year of implementation, the number of data suppliers, the number of data sets, the number of visitors, the level of metadata accessibility, the metadata standard used, and several others.
Open data of the Dutch Chamber of Commerce (2016)
The Ministry of Economic Affairs engaged the Knowledge Centre Open Data to investigate the possibility of opening the Dutch commercial register as open data. The KCOD was asked to review and reflect on a report prepared by the Dutch Chamber of Commerce on making the Dutch commercial register available as open data. An inventory and analysis was made of all relevant conditions and assumptions made by the Chamber of Commerce regarding the opening of the commercial register. Also the different alternatives proposed by the Chamber of Commerce were critically evaluated. The KCOD also presented and analysed several international examples of the publication of commercial register data and formulated a set of recommendations and identified aspects that require further research. A report presenting the main findings and conclusion of the review is available in Dutch.
Dutch ‘dGPS’ signals under the Freedom of Information Act (2016)
This research, which was commissioned by GeoBusiness, aimed to answer two main research questions: 1) to what extent is NETPOS subject to the Dutch Freedom of Information Act? and 2) should NETPOS data be made available as open data? NETPOS is Netherlands Positioning Service, consisting of 38 GNSS reference stations throughout the Netherlands. The research investigated the relevance and applicability of several legal and policy frameworks: the open data policy of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, the Dutch Freedom of Information Act, the Dutch Land Register Act and the Re-use of Public Information Act. In addition to the analysis of relevant legal frameworks, several interviews were executed to identify the different components of NETPOS, the current distribution of NETPOS and the ways NETPOS could be made available as open data.
The Global Legal Interoperability Map of the world (GLIM), a project assigned by the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association (GSDI), explores at a global level the currently existing variety of open data licences applied to geographical data. This first exploration provided new insights in the extent to which these licences are interoperable from a legal perspective and feeds discussions at policy levels to improve the legal interoperability of open geographical data. Around 30 different licenses for geographic data and services were identified and briefly described, focusing on the use conditions. For each license, it was indicated in which countries it is used. The licenses were categorised into three main groups: open licenses, share alike licenses and attribution licenses.
RIVM open (health) data (2015-2016)
In 2015 the Dutch Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport announced his plans to implement open data in the health domain. The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) conducts research and provides policy advice on issues dealing with public health and environment. RIVM collects and collates knowledge, information but also data from various sources, both national and international. The data collected and use by RIVM not only concern health and welfare data, but also data on environment and public safety issues. To prepare the implementation of open data in the RIVM, the Knowledge Centre Open Data researched the legal requirements for RIVM health data as open data. In order to support the decision making process, an open data decision tree was developed. Also advice was provided for the development and implementation of the RIVM open data strategy. The open data decision tree and the strategies for publishing and opening data were presented and described in a report in Dutch.
Open data and beyond II: Monitoring the impact of open data Liander (2012-2013)
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The private sector also recognizes potential benefits of making their datasets available as open data. One such company is Liander, a Dutch utility company which operates in the distribution of electricity and natural gas in part of the Netherlands, makes several of its datasets available as open data. In this study, commissioned by Next Generation Infrastructures/ Alliander, an assessment framework was developed to monitor and assess the effects of open data. The framework addresses both internal and external effects, and was applied to assess the effects of open Liander data in 2014. The results and findings of the study are presented in a report in Dutch and in the article ‘Open data and Beyond‘ by Frederika Welle Donker, Bastiaan van Loenen en Arnold Bregt.
Open data and beyond: exploring existing open data projects to prepare a successful open data pilot for Alliander (2011-2012)
As part of the ‘Next Generation Infrastructures’ innovation programme, this project investigated the organisational, legal and technological requirements for the implementation of an open data policy by the different network operators of Alliander. In 2011, Alliander was considering the possibility to make its data available as open data. To prepare a successful open data pilot for Alliander, several aspects still had to be investigated and several questions had to be answered: what is open data, what are the main bottlenecks in implementing open data and what will be the impact of open data on Alliander. A research project was executed by the KCOD to answer each of these questions, and contribute to the preparation of the Alliander open data pilot. The results and findings of the project can be found in several reports (all in Dutch): an introductory report, a report on privacy, a report on liability and a report on instruments for monitoring the impact of open data.
Data Policy Rijkswaterstaat: Overview of legal frameworks on government data (2011-2012)
To support Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) in the development and implementation of an open data policy, the KCOD made an analysis of the general policy frameworks applicable to RWS data and data from the RWS Water Service in particular. An in-depth discussion and analysis of several relevant legal and policy frameworks was made, including the legal rights of RWS as data provider, the legal obligations of data providers, the European INSPIRE Directive, international frameworks in the domain of water, competition laws, liability legislation, the national data policy, and others. Two reports (both in Dutch) were published as part of this project: one report providing an overview of the relevant legal frameworks and one report providing flow schemes for data publishing.